外出血损伤不可怕 教你几招简易急救诀窍

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边江 发表于 2017-4-19 11:26:46 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
经常玩户外的人都知道,这项爱好是少不了要磕磕碰碰,擦伤挂彩的。如果外出血了怎么办?莫慌张,这里教你几招简单的急救诀窍,赶快收藏起来~
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出血可分为外出血和内出血两种,在开放性损伤中血管因受伤破裂,而致血液自伤口向体外流出称外出血。
1.当出现外出血的情况时,毫无疑问是先要止血。外出血的3种止血方法:
加压包扎法:小的外伤、毛细血管或小静脉出血,流出的血液易于凝结,在伤口部盖上消毒熬料,然后用三角巾或绷带加压包扎即可。
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指压止血法:一般用于动脉止血。即用手指将出血动脉的近心脏端,用力压向其相对的骨面,以阻断血液来源而达到临时止血的目的。
止血带止血法:四肢大动脉出血,不易用加压包扎或指压法止血时,可用止血带(橡皮带或其他代用品),缚扎于出血部的近心脏端。应用止血带,不能直接压在皮肤上,而先要在上止血带的部位用三角巾、毛巾等软物包垫好,将伤肢高抬,再扎上止血带,其松紧度以能压住动脉血流为原则,缚后以肢端腊色为宜;如果呈紫红色则能压住动脉血流为原则,如系上肢应每隔 20-30 分钟,如系下肢应每隔 45-60 分钟放松一次,凡上止血带后的伤者,必须记录上止血带的部位与时间,并应迅速送医疗单位。
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2.止血之后,就要包扎伤口了。包扎有保护伤口、减少感染机会、压迫止血、固定骨折和减少伤痛的作用,是损伤急救的主要技术之一。包扎常用的材料有绷带、三角巾等。现场如果没有这些材料,亦可用毛巾、衣物等代替。包扎动作应力求熟练、软柔,松紧应适宜。下面,以绷带为材料或类似绷带的材料的4种包扎法:
环形包扎法:常用于肢体较小部位的包扎,或用于其他包扎法的开始和终结。包扎时打开绷带卷,把绷带斜放伤肢上,用手压住,将绷带绕肢体包扎一周后,再将带头和一个小角反折过来,然后继续绕圈包扎,第二圈盖住第一圈,包扎 3-4 圈即可。
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螺旋包扎法:绷带卷斜行缠绕,每卷压着前面的一半或三分之一。此法多用于肢体粗细差别不大的部位。
反折螺旋包扎法:做螺旋包扎时,用一拇指压住绷带上方,将其反折向下,压住前一圈的一半或三分之一,多用于肢体粗细相关较大的部位。

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“8” 字包扎法:多用于关节部位的包扎。在关节上方开始做环形包扎数圈,然后将绷带斜行缠绕,一圈在关节下缠绕,两圈在关节凹面交叉,反复进行,每圈压过前一圈一半或三分之一。
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为了有备无患,最好随行准备一个急救箱,尽量把急救物资充实,这样可以安心出游。 急救箱物品:消毒药、纱布、橡皮膏、绷带、创可贴、三角巾、常备药、医疗卡(把血型和病史写在上面,以便在非常状态下提供有效的依据)、剪子、小刀、小镊子等。

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agzasrwi 发表于 2017-12-10 11:30:20 | 显示全部楼层

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