雪崩逃生最不该往山下跑 那到底要往哪跑?

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边江 发表于 2017-4-19 16:17:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
雪崩在户外高山线路上是致命的,也是最危险的高山灾难之一。遭遇雪崩的时候,登山者可能被扫下去,或是被冰雪砸中;大型雪崩的气浪更是可以致人于死地。因此,如果你将要去高山地区进行户外活动,那么你有必要先了解一下关于雪崩的小常识。
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1、什么是雪崩?雪崩,有些地方也把它称之为“雪塌方”“雪流沙”或“推山雪”。当山坡积雪内部的内聚力抗拒不了它所受到的重力拉引时,便向下滑动,引起大量雪体崩塌,人们把这种自然现象称做雪崩。雪崩具有突然性、运动速度快、破坏力大等特点。它能摧毁大片森林,掩埋房舍、交通线路、通讯设施和车辆,甚至能堵截河流,发生临时性的涨水。同时,它还能引起山体滑坡、山崩和泥石流等可怕的自然现象。因此,雪崩被人们列为积雪山区的一种严重自然灾害。
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2、什么因素会引发雪崩?造成雪崩的原因主要是山坡积雪太厚,因此,导致山坡积雪过厚的情况都会因为雪崩:
①雪崩常常发生于山地,有些雪崩是在特大雪暴中产生的,但常见的是发生在积雪堆积过厚、超过了山坡面的摩擦阻力时。
②天气时冷时暖,天气转晴,或春天开始融雪时,积雪变得很不稳固,积雪层在重力作用下,开始向下滑动。若积雪大量滑动,就会造成雪崩。

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③有时候动物的奔跑、滚落的石块、刮风、轻微地震动,甚至在山谷中大喊一声,只要压力超过了将雪粒凝结成团的内聚力,就足以引发一场灾难性雪崩。
④值得注意的是,有时候人类的活动也可能引发雪崩。滑雪、徒步旅行或其他冬季运动爱好者经常会在不经意间成为雪崩的导火索。
⑤此外,地震运行踩裂雪面也会导致积雪下滑造成雪崩。

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3、如何避开雪崩?雪崩通常从山顶上爆发,在向山下移动时,以极快的速度和巨大的力量将它前面的一切东西卷走,直到广阔的平原上它的力量才消失。这种“白色死神”的重量可达数百万吨。雪崩的巨大破坏力的秘密还在于雪流能驱赶着它前面的气浪,而这种气浪的冲击比雪流本身的打击更加危险,它能推倒房屋,折断树木,使人窒息而死。遇上雪崩是很危险的,在雪地活动的人必须逃生。而对付雪崩最有效的工具还是学会正确辨识和避开雪崩坡,下面针对这个问题给大家提几个建议:
①既然你已经知道了引发雪崩的因素,那么毋庸置疑的是,你必须要巧妙地避开这些因素。
②此外,也不要在陡坡上活动。因为雪崩通常是向下移动,在1:5的斜坡上,即可发生雪崩。如必须穿越斜坡地带,切勿单独行动,也不要挤在一起行动,应一个接一个地走,后一个出发的人应与前一个保持一段可观察到的安全距离。

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③注意雪崩的先兆,例如冰雪破裂声或低沉的轰鸣声,雪球下滚或仰望山上见有云状的灰白尘埃。雪崩经过的道路,可依据峭壁、比较光滑的地带或极少有树的山坡的断层等地形特征辨认出来。
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4、如何在雪崩中逃生?①倘若真的遇上了雪崩,不论发生什么情况,必须马上远离雪崩的路线。同时,要立即判断当时的形势,赶紧逃生。也许大家都会本能地往山下跑;那你有没有想到,冰雪也是向山下崩落的。那么,雪崩中逃生时,应当是向旁边跑才是较为安全的。这样,可以避开雪崩,或者能跑到较高的地方。
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②同时,逃生时要抛弃身上所有笨重物件,如背包,滑雪板,滑雪杖等。带着这些物件,倘若陷在雪中,活动起来会显得更加困难。并且切勿滑雪逃生。不过,如处于雪崩路线的边缘,则可疾驶逃出险境。如果给雪崩赶上,无法摆脱,切记闭口屏息,以免冰雪涌入咽喉和肺部引致窒息。


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③抓紧山坡旁任何稳固的东西,如矗立的岩石之类。即使有一阵子陷入其中,但冰雪终究会泻完,那时便可脱险了。如果给冲下山坡,要尽力爬上雪堆表面,同时以俯泳,仰泳或狗爬法逆流而上,逃向雪流的边缘,逆流而上时,也许要用双手挡住石头和冰块,但一定要设法爬上雪堆表面。

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